The accumulation of plaque or tartar can lead to gum disease. This includes gingivitis, which is inflammation of the gums. If left untreated, gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. This is a serious infection that destroys the bone that supports the teeth. In such cases, it is advisable to get deep teeth cleaning done by a speciality dentist.
The most common cause of darker pigments (Gingival Hyperpigmentation) in the gums is genetics. Excess melanin can build up in the gums, making them look brown or black instead of pink. Other causes for dark gums include smoking, side effects from certain medications and possible effect of amalgam fillings on the gum.
The extra pigment does not indicate any disease or dysfunction. Patients seek treatment because of an aesthetic preference for pink gums that showcase their teeth better.
Gum depigmentation is permanent. With the advent of lasers, gum depigmentation procedure has yielded good results. Laser ablation has been recognized recently as the most effective, pleasant and reliable technique.
Laser gum depigmentation uses laser energy to peel off the gingival epithelium. This technique is minimally invasive causing less tissue loss and minimizes post op complications like pain, swelling and infection. Lasers cause less bleeding which improves visibility at the surgical site. After clinical depigmentation, chances of relapse are very less with the use of lasers.